سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۷

محل انتشار: دومین کنگره بین المللی علوم و فناوری نانو

تعداد صفحات: ۳

نویسنده(ها):

Zohreh Bigdeli – IAEO, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Reactors and Accelerators Research and Development School (RARDS)
Fereydoon Payami – IAEO, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Reactors and Accelerators Research and Development School (RARDS
Mehdi Sharifzadeh –

چکیده:

In recent years particularly during the decades after second world war and specially after the Chernobyl power plant events , as well as development of use of radio active materials in different branches of science and industries, it is essential that we think about various ways for achieve suitable methods for monitoring, recognize, prevention and treatment the victims of radiation accidents. One of these ways is use of nanotechnology methods. Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the level of molecules and atoms. Research in nanotechnology began with applications outside of medicine and is based on discoveries in physics and chemistry. This because it is essential to understand the physical and chemicals properties of molecules or complex of molecules in orders to control them. The same holds true for the molecules and structure inside living tissues. Researchers have developed powerful tools to extensively categories the part of cell in vivid detail and we know a great deal about how these intracellular structures operates. Nanotechnology is a field of science and engineering whose ultimate aim is to build robots smaller than living cells with the ability to arrange individual atoms into any physically possible pattern. But another way, the aim is total control of the structure of the structure of matter, rearranging it at will via molecule – sized machines to suit human purposes. To understand this goal, we must understand the extremely small scale at which nanotechnology would operate. Large- scale objects like human bodies are measured in meters. Humans and all other life on Earth are made of membrane – enclosed building blocks called cells. A typical human body has about 100 trillion cells. Cells are measured in units called nanometer (nm); one nanometer is equal to one billionth of a meter. A typical cell measure anywhere from 1,000 to 100,000 nanometer in diameter. A virus, a sub-microscopic parasite that preys on cells, is typically 50 to 100 nanometers long. The building blocks of cells and viruses are molecules, tiny chemical structures that do biologically useful tasks for organisms. Examples include carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins. These molecules vary widely in size, but a typical protein molecule might measure, say, five to twenty nanometers in size. Lay 100 million of them end to end and you’d equal the height of an average human being. Molecules, in turn, are made of atoms, which average about 0.1 nanometers in size. Yet we have still not been able to answer question such as how many? How big? How fast? These questions must be addressed in order to build nanostructures, or nano machines that are compatible with living tissues, and can safely operate inside the body. Once these questions are answered, we will design better diagnostic tools and engineer structures for more special treatment of disease and repair of tissues. Imaging using nanotechnology to introduce revolutionary new ways of dispensing medicine and treatment and or prevention of injuries that take place during radiation accident . The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Cancer Institutes (NCI) have created the nanotechnology alliance for cancer to bring nanotechnology into the clinic as well. The objective is to develop nonmaterials and nanomedical devices that can be used to treat sickness disease as well as ultimately prevent illnesses such as cancer.