سال انتشار: ۱۳۹۰

محل انتشار: اولین کنفرانس بین المللی و سومین کنفرانس ملی سد و نیروگاههای برق آبی

تعداد صفحات: ۱۳

نویسنده(ها):

Zahid Majeed –
Awais Latif Piracha –
Khwar Munir –
Shafiq ur Rehman –

چکیده:

Pakistan is located in a semiarid to arid region where rainfall is highly deficient and does not match the crop requirements. In most plain areas of the country it is less than500 mm and is unevenly distributed over the year. As Pakistan is not an oil rich country, its economy depends on agriculture sector which accounts for about 23 % ofthe GDP and 42% of total employed labour force. It is also the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture of country is mostly dependent on Indus RiverSystem (IRS). IRS maintains World’s largest integrated irrigation network calledIndus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS). Historically IBIS had been fed through run of river supplies derived from Indus and its five major tributaries. As a result of Indus Water Treaty with India in 1960, IndusBasin Project (IBP) works were constructed during the sixties and the seventies. Twomega multipurpose projects (Mangla and Tarbela dams), five barrages one gated siphon and eight interriver link canals were constructed to regulate and convey waterof western rivers to irrigation canals taking off from eastern rivers. Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) completed the construction of all sixteenIBP components within a decade. Two multipurpose dams, Mangla (Live Storage 6.6 billion cubic meter (BCM),Installed Capacity 1000 MW) and Tarbela (Live Storage 11.9 BCM, Installed Capacity 3478 MW) were built on Jhelum and Indus rivers respectively. Thesemultipurpose mega dams provide about 70% of total existing storage capacity and hydropower infrastructure (producing one fifth of the country’s electricity during2007-08). These dams were constructed to regulate and supplement flows in irrigation network to sustain Pakistan’s agriculture. These dams are primarily operated according to irrigation requirements of the country while inexpensive hydroelectricityis produced as a byproduct. This paper highlights the role of the two large multipurpose dams i.e. Mangla andTarbela commissioned in 1967 and 1976 respectively, in the economic development ofPakistan. Careful analysis of four decades historic data (from 1967 to 2006) after the construction of these dams on the canal head diversions of IBIS, when compared with the historic run of river supplies, reveals that about 20% additional flows areavailable for irrigation during low flow season. The paper also analyzes these dams role in providing hydroelectricity that sustains the energy sector of Pakistan.Moreover impact on the economic growth of the country due to failure to construct themega multipurpose dam since 1976 to date is explored. The results reveal that sustainability in the economy of country is only possible bybuilding large multipurpose dams for storage to regulate flows for irrigation and hydropower.