سال انتشار: ۱۳۹۰

محل انتشار: همایش بین المللی دانش سنتی مدیریت منابع آب

تعداد صفحات: ۷

نویسنده(ها):

Alovsat Guliyev – Nakhchivan State University, Azerbaijan
Ali Hasanov –

چکیده:

Kahriz (qanat) as a hydrotechnical facility that extricates underground waters to the surface by gravity flow, regardless of the season, regularly provides a clean and pure water, also plays the role of natural drainage, positively effecting the environment. In Azerbaijan, in areas with poorly developed river network, there are rich water resources (more than 2.5 billion cubic meters). The number of qanats, available in Azerbaijan is over 1500. But official data indicates the state registration of 885 qanats. The total water consumption of Azerbaijani qanats is 13-15 cubic meters/second. This means 450-500 million cubic meters of water. On the use of qanat water, Azerbaijan ranks behind such countries as Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Oman. In Azerbaijan qanats are distributed mainly on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, in Nakhchivan, Garabagh, near Ganja and other regions. Their consumption varies from 2-3 to 110-120 l/sec. Their length is changing from 30 meters to 3-4 kilometers. The biggest qanat of for the water consumption is qanat Chay kahrizi in the village of Khyok of Kangarli district in the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. Its flow rate is 120 l / sec. The biggest high-water spring is in the village Garabaglar of the same district. Spring Asni Bulagi (85 l / s) comes out to the surface in 300 meters at the top of the village. As a result of the collapse of qanats over the past 50 years, unwanted processes take place. Which play the role of natural drainage, has caused thousands of hectares of fertile land to come to despair for the agricultural use. As a result, of the ecological balance which was disrupted, the existing fauna and flora has been destroyed, in their place appeared a new fauna and flora adapted to the swampy terrain and saline lands. Today, the amount of water used by qanats comprises 25-30% of the water that was used in 1950s in Azerbaijan. Starting from the early 21st century a particular attention began to be paid to qanats, in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, the Department of Qanats has already been established and has been functioning, more than 100 karizes have been repaired. Studies show that Azerbaijan has the opportunity not only to restore once existing qanats, but also to implement new qanat projects. Currently, this experience is carried out by many international organizations. If we consider that at present, when such processes as global warming, natural disasters call for humanity to be vigilant, we must pay great attention to the protection and restoration of qanat systems that provide clean and pure water continuously, require very low maintenance costs, and satisfy the needs of the population in drinking and irrigation water